Illustrative example of optical illusion of wide foot
Optical illusion of wide foot. The pictures show how a shoe can look wider or narrower, because of the modeling lines. Using dark en bright colors may even augment the effect.
Optical illusion of wide foot. The last at the right is longer than the one the left. For most cases a shape that is longer, looks narrower. Here however, the pointed toecap of the shoe on the right emphasizes the width of the shoe. Therefore, if the feet are wide, it is not recommendable to choose a pointed toe cap.
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Illustrative example of optical illusion of a short foot
Optical illusion of a short foot. A plain vamp or width-wise lines make look the shoe shorter and wider. By choosing a model with length-wise lines the shoe will look longer.
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Amputation in metatarsal area. A schematic rendering of the effect of a wedge of soft spongy rubber in the forefoot of a prosthesis. During walking the prosthesis will bend achieving a more natural walking pattern and wrinkling of the vamp.
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Difference in size of feet - interpretation of photographs
Example of blueprints and shoes of a person having a normal sized foot and a very small foot caused by polio.

Within the blueprints immediately the difference in length will attract attention. The blueprints show the anamelous pressure of the left foot as well as that of the right foot, and development of the hallux valgus.

The client inclined to buy shoes that were to narrow for the right foot, so as the shoe for the left foot wouldn't have a too loose fit.
The lateral view of the shoe for the left foot, where the artificial extension is applied inside the shoe.

The top view shows the outline of the adaptation.

For a perfect fitting the shoe must enclose the instep completely, and the inlay at the heel should be bowl-shaped. The front part of the left and right shoe have the same length and proportions. The total length of the left and right shoe differ slightly, because the rear of the left foot is shorter, and because of the atrophia of the lower leg.

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