Illustrative example of optical illusion of wide foot
Optical illusion of wide foot. The pictures show how a shoe can look wider or narrower, because of the modeling lines. Using dark en bright colors may even augment the effect.
Optical illusion of wide foot. The last at the right is longer than the one the left. For most cases a shape that is longer, looks narrower. Here however, the pointed toecap of the shoe on the right emphasizes the width of the shoe. Therefore, if the feet are wide, it is not recommendable to choose a pointed toe cap.
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Illustrative example of optical illusion of a short foot
Optical illusion of a short foot. A plain vamp or width-wise lines make look the shoe shorter and wider. By choosing a model with length-wise lines the shoe will look longer.
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Amputations
Amputation in metatarsal area. A schematic rendering of the effect of a wedge of soft spongy rubber in the forefoot of a prosthesis. During walking the prosthesis will bend achieving a more natural walking pattern and wrinkling of the vamp.
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Difference in size of feet - interpretation of photographs
Example of blueprints and shoes of a person having a normal sized foot and a very small foot caused by polio.

Within the blueprints immediately the difference in length will attract attention. The blueprints show the anamelous pressure of the left foot as well as that of the right foot, and development of the hallux valgus.

The client inclined to buy shoes that were to narrow for the right foot, so as the shoe for the left foot wouldn't have a too loose fit.
The lateral view of the shoe for the left foot, where the artificial extension is applied inside the shoe.

The top view shows the outline of the adaptation.

For a perfect fitting the shoe must enclose the instep completely, and the inlay at the heel should be bowl-shaped. The front part of the left and right shoe have the same length and proportions. The total length of the left and right shoe differ slightly, because the rear of the left foot is shorter, and because of the atrophia of the lower leg.

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Pes calcaneus
Pes calcaneus. A schematic rendering of the effect of lowering the heel of the foot into the heel of the shoe. The more the heel of the foot is lowered the more flat the front of the shoe will be.
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Illustrative example of a custom-made AFO - interpretation of photographs

Custom-made ankle-foot-orthesis for a customer who needs total inactivity of the ankle joint.
Medial and lateral view of the last.
Ankle-foot-orthesis before removing the last.
The pictures show the orthesis after removing the last. It has a strengthened tongue (light green), a stiffened sheath of ankle, an inlay that can be modified easily (light blue) and an artificial roll.
The orthesis shown in the three pictures is ready to be tried on.

After trying on there are two options:

a) the AFO will be finished as a shoe, uppers, soles, and heels are added

b) the AFO will be finished and put in a custom-made shoe.

Both options have advantages and disadvantages.

In the first case for the next order a new orthesis and shoe have to be made, but on the other hand the shoe will be much lighter, slimmer, and to put them on is more comfortable.

In the second case, together, shoe and orthesis are somewhat bulkier, heavier and it takes an extra step to put them on. The advantages here are the costs and delivery time of the next pair, because then the orthesis can be used again.

The last picture shows very well that by using advanced materials we keep the orthesis slim.
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